Leo T. Happel, Ph.D., D.ABNM, FASNM is the director of clinical operations at NTI.  He is a gratis faculty member of the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center. Dr. Happel has expertise in IOM and clinical neurophysiology, including over 35 years of peripheral nerve research with many publications in this area.

He is a founding member of the American Board of Neurophysiologic Monitoring (ABNM), a fellow of the American Society of Neurophysiological Monitoring (ASNM), and a member of the Sunderland Society, the International Peripheral Nerve Study Group.

The following is a summary of Dr. Happel's publications:

  • Kretschmer T, Nguyen DH, Beuerman RW, Happel LT, England JD, Tiel RL, Kline DG. Painful neuromas: a potential role for a structural transmembrane protein, ankyrin G. J Neurosurg. 2002 Dec;97(6):1424-31.
  • Clark GD, Zorumski CF, McNeil RS, Happel LT, Ovella T, McGuire S, Bix GJ, Swann JW. Neuronal platelet-activating factor receptor signal transduction involves a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein. Neurochem Res. 2000 May;25(5):603-11.
  • England JD, Happel LT, Liu ZP, Thouron CL, Kline DG. Abnormal distributions of potassium channels in human neuromas. Neurosci Lett. 1998 Oct 9;255(1):37-40.
  • Tiel RL, Happel LT Jr, Kline DG. Nerve action potential recording method and equipment. Neurosurgery. 1996 Jul;39(1):103-8; discussion 108-9.
  • England JD, Happel LT, Kline DG, Gamboni F, Thouron CL, Liu ZP, Levinson SR. Sodium channel accumulation in humans with painful neuromas. Neurology. 1996 Jul;47(1):272-6.
  • Kline DG, Happel LT. Penfield Lecture. A quarter century's experience with intraoperative nerve action potential recording. Can J Neurol Sci. 1993 Feb;20(1):3-10. Review.
  • Clark GD, Happel LT, Zorumski CF, Bazan NG. Enhancement of hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission by platelet-activating factor. Neuron. 1992 Dec;9(6):1211-6.
  • Schutte MJ, Happel LT. Joint innervation in joint injury. Clin Sports Med. 1990 Apr;9(2):511-7. Review.
  • Carey ME, Sarna GS, Farrell JB, Happel LT. Experimental missile wound to the brain. J Neurosurg. 1989 Nov;71(5 Pt 1):754-64.
  • Schutte MJ, Dabezies EJ, Zimny ML, Happel LT. Neural anatomy of the human anterior cruciate ligament. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1987 Feb;69(2):243-7.
  • Johnston CE 2nd, Happel LT Jr, Norris R, Burke SW, King AG, Roberts JM. Delayed paraplegia complicating sublaminar segmental spinal instrumentation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1986 Apr;68(4):556-63.
  • Gollehon D, Kahanovitz N, Happel LT. Temperature effects on feline cortical and spinal evoked potentials. Spine. 1983 Jul-Aug;8(5):443-6.
  • Happel LT, Rothschild H, Garcia C. Visual evoked potentials in two forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1980 Feb;48(2):233-6.
  • Ferriss GS, Happel LT, Duncan MC. Cerebral cortical isolation in infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1977 Aug;43(2):168-82.
  • LeBlanc HJ, Happel LT, Kline DG. Letter: Spinal cord evoked response. J Neurosurg. 1976 Feb;44(2):269-70.
  • Happel LT, LeBlanc HJ, Kline DG. Spinal cord potentials evoked by peripheral nerve stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1975 Apr;38(4):349-54.